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Image #   29235A
Name:   Toxic heterotrophic dinoflagellate - Pfiesteria piscidica
Copyright:   Copyright 2010 Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.
Description:   Caption: Toxic heterotrophic dinoflagellate - Pfiesteria piscidica. Pfiesteria is a genus of heterotrophic dinoflagellates that has been associated with harmful algal blooms (toxic bloom, red tide), fish kills and causing health problems in humans. It differs from most known toxin producing algae in that it does not produce a pigment and thus gives no visual evidence of its activity. A complex life cycle of 'Pfiesteria complex organisms (PCOs) has been claimed to be responsible for large fish kills in the 1980s and 1990s on the East Coast of the United States. Early research suggested that a complex life cycle of up to 24 stages (cyst, several amoeboid stages, toxic zoospores) occurred for Pfiesteria piscidica but additional research shows that the life cycle is a simple haplonic life cycle. Pfiesteria biology and the role of PCOs in killing fish and causing health issues in humans have been subject to controversies and conflicting research results. Recently a number of researchers in both government and university laboratories have isolated and characterized the toxin of Pfiesteria piscidica as a metal complex and free radical toxin. They have also identified how the dinoflagellate transforms from a non-toxic to toxic state. Pfiesteria was discovered in 1988 by researchers JoAnn Burkholder and Ed Noga and was named after an early dinoflagellate researcher, Lois Ann Pfiester.
Magnification*: x2,135
Type: SEM
    *(Magnifications are based on a 35mm slide image of 24mm in the narrow dimension.)
Keywords:   29235A algae alga dinoflagellates Pfiesteria piscicida toxic bloom toxic marine toxic bloom red tide marine plankton plankton phytoplankton SEM algal bloom algal blooms protozoa protozoan protozoans red tide alga red tide algae red tide protozoa red tide protozoan red tide protozoans red tides toxic algal bloom toxic algal blooms toxic dinoflagellate toxic dinoflagellates toxic heterotrophic dinoflagellate toxic heterotrophic dinoflagellates harmful alga bloom harmful alga blooms harmful algal bloom harmful algal blooms Dinophyceae Phytodiniales Pfiesteria fish kill fish-kill toxic fish kill toxic fish-kill PCO PCOs Pfiesteria complex organism Pfiesteria complex organisms fish kills harmful fish kill harmful fish kills toxic fish kills haplonic haplonic life cycle life cycle Pfiesteriaceae HAB HABs dinoflagellate toxins estuarine estuarine dinoflagellete estuarine dinoflagelletes toxin toxin producing alga toxin producing algae toxin-producing alga toxin-producing algae diplopsaloid diplopsaloid dinoflagellate diplopsaloid dinoflagellates heterotroph thecate dinoflagellate thecate dinoflagellates flagella flagellum girdle girdle flagella girdle flagellum sulcal flagella sulcal flagellum sulcal groove sulcus undulating undulating flagella undulating flagellum undulation groove thecate heterotrophic dinoflagellate thecate heterotrophic dinoflagellates diplopsaloid shape diplopsaloid shaped marine planktonic planktonic dinoflagellate planktonic dinoflagellates protist protista protists sea water seawater Dinophyta Protozoa Protozoan Protozoans dinokont dinoflagellate dinokont dinoflagellates heterotrophic heterotrophic alga heterotrophic algae heterotrophic dinoflagellate heterotrophic dinoflagellates epitheca epithecum hypotheca hypothecum dinoflagellates feeding eukaryote eukaryotic autotroph autotrophic autotrophic dinoflagellate autotrophic dinoflagellates autotrophs marine phytoplankton mixotroph mixotrophic mixotrophic dinoflagellate mixotrophic dinoflagellates Dinozoa Pyrrophyta cingulum transverse flagella transverse flagellum longitudinal flagella longitudinal flagellum 10.01.10

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