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251096D

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Image #   251096D
Name:   Bacteria on the human tongue papillae
Copyright:   Copyright 2009 Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.
Description:   Caption: Bacteria on an epithelial cells from the human tongue filiform papillae. In this scanning electron micrograph (SEM) coccoid bacteria are seen on the epithelial surface (left corner). The coccoid bacteria are likely Streptococcus mutans due to the fibrous glucan matrix that is seen surrounding the cells. Most bacteria on the human tongue are harmless or even beneficial. However some bacteria can cause throat infections and form plaque deposits on teeth. Plaque will also lead to tooth decay and periodontal disease. S. mutans is a coccoid shaped, Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic bacteria that is part of the normal bacteria flora of the mouth. It can thrive in temperatures ranging from 18-40 degrees Celsius. It metabolizes sucrose to lactic acid and is a leading cause of tooth enamel decay. The acidic environment created in the mouth by this process is what causes the highly mineralized tooth enamel to decay. S. mutans is one of a few specialized organisms equipped with receptors for adhesion to the surface of teeth. Sucrose is utilized by S. mutans to produce a sticky, extracellular, dextran-based polysaccharide (glucan) that allows them to adhere to each other forming plaque. Other sugars (glucose, fructose, lactose) can be digested by S. mutans to produce lactic acid.
Magnification*: x1,400
Type: SEM
    *(Magnifications are based on a 35mm slide image of 24mm in the narrow dimension.)
Keywords:   251096D medical epithelium epithelial cells human epithelia tongue bacteria 10.01.09 epithelial cell filiform papilla filiform papillae tongue epithelial cell tongue epithelial cells human tongue tongue bacteria tongue bacterium tongue filiform papilla tongue filiform papillae tongue surface oral bacteria oral bacterium SEM glucan glucan matrix Streptococcus mutans human tongue bacteria coccoid coccoid bacterium cocci coccus coccoid bacteria human tongue bacterium throat infections oral flora tongue flora bacterial flora mouth flora mouth bacteria mouth bacterium lactic acid tooth decay peridontal disease human disease dextran dextran polysaccharide polysaccharide plaque tongue plaque tooth plaque teeth plaque bacterial adhesion bacteria adhesion acid environment acidic environment adhesion receptors anaerobic bacteria anaerobic bacterium bacterial pathogen dental decay gamma streptococci gamma streptococcus Gram-positive Gram bacteria gram positive gum disease human flora human infection human microbiota human pathogen lactic acid mouth oral microbiota oral pathogen periodontal infection prokaryote human teeth human tooth tooth teeth human mouth throat infection squamous cell squamous cells squamous epithelial cell squamous epithelial cells biofilm papilla papillae tongue papilla tongue papillae

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