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Image #   28120C
Name:   Saccharopolyspora spinosa - soil actinomycete (bacterium)
Copyright:   Copyright 2009 Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.
Description:   Caption: Saccharopolyspora spinosa - Gram-positive, aerobic, filamentous, rod prokaryote (bacterium). Saccharopolyspora spinosa is a soil actinomycete that belongs to the Actinomycetes group and are bacteria that share many characteristics with fungi. They grow usually as filaments (chains of cells) and often branch to form a network of filaments (mycelium) in the soil. At the tips of filaments spore chains of indefinite length develop (not seen in this image). These soil bacteria are responsible for the musty odor of soil. Saccharopolyspora spinosa was first identified in 1982 and subsequently a new class of metabolite products (called spinosyns) were discovered under fermentation conditions by this actinomycete. The metabolites were found to be very important in insect pest management control. The first insecticide product from this class of metabolites has been called Spinosad. Spinosad is a mixture of the two most active naturally occurring metabolites (spinosyns A and D) produced by S. spinosa. Structurally, these compounds are macrolides and contain a unique tetracyclic ring system to which two different sugars are attached. These compounds have a unique mode of action coupled with a high degree of activity on targeted pests (especially catepillars and flies) with low toxicity to non-target organisms. Spinosad is selectively active on insects in the orders: Lepidoptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera, and some Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Targeted crops are cotton, vegetables, tree fruits, and nuts. Spinosad will be an alternative biological based insecticide for pest management control systems in the future.
Magnification*: x2,000
Type: SEM
    *(Magnifications are based on a 35mm slide image of 24mm in the narrow dimension.)
Keywords:   28120C bacteria bacterium actinomycete spinosyn spinosyns insect control insecticide Saccharopolyspora Saccharopolyspora spinosa SEM 04.01.09 spinosad spinosads Actinomycetales actinomycete bacteria actinomycete bacterium filamentous bacteria antibiotic bacterial pathogen drug filament Gram-positive human disease infection prokaryote streptomycin soil bacteria soil bacterium filamentous bacterium actinomycetes Gram positive irregular shaped soil microbe soil microbes soil organism soil organisms hypha hyphae mycelia mycelium spore chain spore chains spores aerobic aerobic bacteria aerobic bacterium aerobic microbe aerobic microbes aerobic microorganism antibiotics musty odor soil odor prokaryotes anti-parasite antiparasite chain of cells chains of cells spore musty odors Actinobacteria anti-bacteria anti-bacterial anti-fungal anti-fungus antibacteria antibacterial antifungal antifungus fungicide bactericide antibiotic production antibiotic industry emerging infection emerging infections non-infective disease non-infective diseases tetracycline tetracycline antibiotic tetracycline antibiotics streptomycin antibiotic streptomycin antibiotics soil actinomycete soil actinomycetes biocontrol biological control insect control product insect control products macrolide macrolides naturalyte pest management system mycelial mycelial filament mycelial filaments

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