Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc.

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Assignment Photography

Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc. offers microscopy and photomicrography services for research, educational, industrial and commercial applications (see About Dennis Kunkel). Please Contact Dennis Kunkel if you don't find the scientific photographs in our science stock photography library. Microscopy and photomicrography services are available as follows:


Light Microscopy (LM). Microscopy and photomicrography with the use of dissecting and compound microscopes. Light is transmitted through or reflected from a specimen to visualize its components. Magnifications of 5 to 1500 times can be achieved. Illumination techniques available:

  1. Bright-field
  2. Polarized
  3. Dark-field
  4. Phase Contrast
  5. Rheinberg
  6. Differential Interference Contrast

Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). A transmission electron microscope transmits electrons through a specimen in a way that is similar to an optical light microscope passing light through a specimen. However, instead of glass lenses directing light wavelengths through a specimen, the electron microscope's electromagnetic lenses direct electrons through a specimen. Prior to this, the specimen must be prepared so it can be cut, or 'sectioned', in a thin, hard slice that will allow electrons to pass through it. Because the wavelength of electrons is much smaller than the wavelength of light, the resolution achieved by the TEM is many times greater than that of the light microscope. Thus, the TEM can reveal the finest details of structure - in some cases even individual atoms. Magnifications of 1,000 to 500,000 times are routine. If present in a biological sample, internal cell structures (nucleus, mitochondrion, etc.) can be imaged and photographed. With an electron microscope, micro-structural characterization of non-biological materials, including unit cell periodicity, can be readily determined using combinations of imaging and diffraction techniques. The TEM provides high resolution, two-dimensional views of a specimen. Three-dimensional reconstruction can be achieved with special software programs.

Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). A scanning electron microscope transmits electrons, as does a transmission electron microscope. However, rather than electrons passing through a thin slice of the specimen, they scan across the surface of a specimen, to create a high-resolution, three-dimensional image. Specimens must be carefully prepared and coated with a thin layer of gold metal to assist in image formation. Due to the energy and wavelength of the electrons that create the image, greater depth of field and higher resolution are achieved when compared to conventional light microscopy. Very fine details of the exterior morphology and topography of biological and non-biological samples can be photographed. Magnifications of 10 to 300,000 times are routine. The TEM provides three-dimensional views of a specimen to facilitate information important in interpreting structural organization.

Microscopy Consultation

Dennis Kunkel Microscopy, Inc. offers microscopy consultation services in the following areas:

  1. Technical consultation for microscopy and photomicrography in medical, biological and non-biological fields.
  2. Educational consultation in curricula development and specialized science programs involving microscopy and photomicrography.
  3. Museum/photography exhibition consultation for design and production of exhibitions involving microscopy.

Photomicrography and Image Applications

Microscopy and photomicrography have important applications in many scientific, medical, industrial and commercial areas. The following is a selected list where microscopy and photomicrography services can be utilized.

  1. Natural science research - studies of morphological and structural features in fields such as botany, zoology, geology, and materials science.
  2. Medical research, biomaterials, and diagnostics - studies of medically related issues such as morphological characterizations of disease, hair, teeth, bone, nails, and tissues.
  3. Ecology and environmental contaminants - studies or detection of environmental products and contaminants such as asbestos, allergenic pollen, natural and synthetic chemicals, etc.
  4. Quality analysis of industrial products - studies of material structures and circuitry, examination and detection of chemical integrity contamination and corrosion of metal and non-metal components.
  5. Agriculture and food / microbial processes - studies of food products and microbial processes that occur in nature or are synthesized.
  6. Criminal investigations - studies of forensics sample characteristics.
  7. Forestry and forest products - studies of wood structure, plant disease, natural plant defense, examination of laminated and particulate wood products, wood resins.
  8. Electronics - studies on polymers, coatings, bonding, and ceramics.
  9. Publications - Editorial photo stock for magazines, newspapers, journals and books.
  10. Educational textbooks - Photo stock to accompany text.
  11. Educational curricula - development of learning tools involving microscopy to present diversified views of science in the classroom.
  12. Interactive educational CD-ROMs - use of microscopy in educational CD-ROMs to create awareness of the complexity of biological and ecological systems.
  13. Exhibitions - science and photography exhibitions featuring large format images from microscopes, in accompaniment with a "virtual microscopes".
  14. Advertising - presentation to the public of the "unseen" impact of the effectiveness or failure to use a certain product, such as in food science, housekeeping, safety, medicine and pharmaceutical.
  15. Products - such as: art prints, posters, calendars, music jackets, mouse pads and postcards.

    Contact Dennis Kunkel for information regarding microscopy services and assignment photography.

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